- Combine yeast, warm water, and 1 teaspoon sugar. Allow to stand until creamy and frothy.
- Measure flour into a mixing bowl. Dissolve 2 teaspoons sugar and salt in warm milk. Blend into flour along with yeast and oil. Mix well; knead until smooth. Cover, and let rise until over triple in volume, about 3 hours. Deflate gently, and let rise again until doubled, about another 3 hours. Deflate and chill 20 minutes.
- Massage butter until pliable, but not soft and oily. Pat dough into a 14x8-inch rectangle. Smear butter over top two thirds, leaving 1/4-inch margin all around. Fold unbuttered third over middle third, and buttered top third down over that. Turn 90 degrees, so that folds are to left and right. Roll out to a 14x6-inch rectangle. Fold in three again. Sprinkle lightly with flour, and put dough in a plastic bag. Refrigerate 2 hours. Unwrap, sprinkle with flour, and deflate gently. Roll to a 14x6-inch rectangle, and fold again. Turn 90 degrees, and repeat. Wrap, and chill 2 hours.
- To shape, roll dough out to a 20x5-inch rectangle. Cut in half crosswise, and chill half while shaping the other half. Roll out to a 15 x 5 inch rectangle. Cut into three 5 x 5 inch squares. Cut each square in half diagonally. Roll each triangle lightly to elongate the point, and make it 7 inches long. Grab the other 2 points, and stretch them out slightly as you roll it up. Place on a baking sheet, curving slightly. Let shaped croissants rise until puffy and light. In a small bowl, beat together egg and 1 tablespoon water. Glaze croissants with egg wash.
- Bake in a preheated 475 degrees F (245 degrees C) oven for 12 to 15 minutes.
Nutrition Facts : Calories 195.5 calories, Carbohydrate 15.8 g, Cholesterol 45.9 mg, Fat 13.4 g, Fiber 0.6 g, Protein 3.1 g, SaturatedFat 7.1 g, Sodium 303.5 mg, Sugar 1.8 g
Provided by Food Network
Yield 20 servings
Number Of Ingredients 9
- In a mixer with a dough hook, place the yeast, flour, sugar, salt and the milk and mix for 2 minutes until a soft moist dough forms on the hook. If most of the flour isn't moistened with this quantity of milk, add more, a tablespoon at a time until it is moistened and smooth, using up to 4 tablespoons. Turn mixer on high and mix for another 4 minutes until very smooth and elastic.
- Turn the dough out of the bowl onto a floured board, cover with a damp tea towel and allow it to rest for 15 minutes to relax the gluten. Remove the towel and, using a French rolling pin, roll the dough into a 10 by 9-inch rectangle 5/8-inch thick. Wrap in plastic then chill for 1 hour and up to overnight.
- Ten minutes before the dough is done resting in the refrigerator, prepare the butter. Beat it with your rolling pin on a floured surface to soften it and form a rectangle 6 by 8 1/2 inches. Place it between parchment paper or plastic wrap and set aside.
- Remove the dough from the refrigerator and roll it on a floured work surface into a 10 by 15-inch and 1/4-inch thick rectangle. Brush any excess flour off the dough. Place the shorter side of the dough parallel to the front of your body on the work surface. Place the butter in the middle, long-ways. Fold the bottom up over the butter and brush off any excess flour and then fold the top down over the butter to overlap and encase the butter. Press down lightly with the rolling pin to push all the layers together and make sure they have contact.
- Continue rolling the laminated (layered) dough to form a new 10 by15-inch rectangle, patching any holes with a dusting of flour where butter may have popped through. Fold into thirds, like a letter, brush off any excess flour and mark it with an indentation made by poking your finger once at the corner of the dough meaning you have completed the first "turn".
- Wrap well in plastic and chill 1 hour and up to overnight. Do this again three more times (some people only do 3 turns total, some do 6, some do 3 plus what's called a "wallet" turn for the last one which is a 4 fold turn that's folded into itself like a book jacket) marking it accordingly each time and chilling in between each turn.
- After the fourth turn, you can let the dough chill overnight, or, for 1 hour, or, roll it out to a 13 by 24-inch square that is a little less than 1/4-inch thick and cut out your croissants and shape them.
- I roll out my dough and cut it with a sharp large knife into 6-inch strips then cut them into triangles, 4 inches wide at the base of the triangle (or for a more curved croissant cut the triangles 6 inches wide). Stretch these triangles again 9 inches long, then place on the work surface and put a piece of scrap dough in the center of the wide end to enclose, which will plump up the center. Roll the triangles up towards you starting at the wide end and place them 2 inches apart on a parchment lined sheet pan with the tip tucked under and the ends slightly curved in to make a crescent shape. You may freeze the croissants at this point, or, in a small bowl, whisk together the egg and milk and brush the croissants with this egg wash.
- To proof the croissants, place them in an oven that is warm but not turned on, with a pan of hot water in the bottom to create a moist environment like a proof box. Set aside to proof for 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours until puffed up and spongy to the touch. Remove from the oven.
- Spritz a preheated 425 degree F oven with water, close the door, and get the croissants. Place the croissants in the oven and spritz again, close the door and turn the oven down to 400 degrees F. After 10 minutes, rotate your pan if they are cooking unevenly and turn the oven down to 375 degrees F. Bake another 5 to 8 minutes until golden brown.
It's important not to try to halve this recipe. When you need only a half recipe of dough, as for the pains au chocolat, use the rest of the dough for a batch of Parma braids or a princess ring. Or make a double recipe of those irresistible chocolate croissants and share them with friends.
Provided by Nancy Silverton
Yield Makes about 2 3/4 lb
Number Of Ingredients 11
- Make dough:
- Stir together warm milk, brown sugar, and yeast in bowl of standing mixer and let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. (If it doesn't foam, discard and start over.) Add 3 3/4 cups flour and salt and mix with dough hook at low speed until dough is smooth and very soft, about 7 minutes.
- Transfer dough to a work surface and knead by hand 2 minutes, adding more flour as necessary, a little at a time, to make a soft, slightly sticky dough. Form dough into a roughly 1 1/2-inch-thick rectangle and chill, wrapped in plastic wrap, until cold, about 1 hour.
- Prepare and shape butter:
- After dough has chilled, arrange sticks of butter horizontally, their sides touching, on a work surface. Pound butter with a rolling pin to soften slightly (butter should be malleable but still cold). Scrape butter into a block and put on a kitchen towel, then cover with other towel. Pound and roll out on both sides until butter forms a uniform 8- by 5-inch rectangle. Chill, wrapped in towels, while rolling out dough.
- Roll out dough:
- Unwrap dough and roll out on a lightly floured surface, dusting with flour as necessary and lifting and stretching dough (especially in corners), into a 16- by 10-inch rectangle. Arrange dough with a short side nearest you. Put butter in center of dough so that long sides of butter are parallel to short sides of dough. Fold as you would a letter: bottom third of dough over butter, then top third down over dough. Brush off excess flour with pastry brush.
- Roll out dough:
- Turn dough so a short side is nearest you, then flatten dough slightly by pressing down horizontally with rolling pin across dough at regular intervals, making uniform impressions. Roll out dough into a 15- by 10-inch rectangle, rolling just to but not over ends.
- Brush off any excess flour. Fold in thirds like a letter, as above, stretching corners to square off dough, forming a 10- by 5-inch rectangle. (You have completed the first "fold.") Chill, wrapped in plastic wrap, 1 hour.
- Make remaining "folds":
- Make 3 more folds in same manner, chilling dough 1 hour after each fold, for a total of 4 folds. (If any butter oozes out while rolling, sprinkle with flour to prevent sticking.) Wrap dough tightly in plastic wrap and chill at least 8 hours but no more than 18 (after 18 hours, dough may not rise sufficiently when baked).
- In a small bowl, mix together yeast, warm water, and 2 teaspoons sugar; let stand until yeast and sugar have dissolved, about 5 minutes. Place remaining 1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon sugar and salt in a small bowl and add warm milk; stir to combine and let stand until dissolved.
- Meanwhile, fill a large clean bowl with 14 cups of water. Make a mark on the outside of the bowl to indicate the fill line. Drain water from bowl and dry; set aside.
- Place 3 1/2 cups flour in a large bowl. Add yeast mixture, sugar mixture, and oil. Using a rubber spatula, cut and press flour into liquid to form a sticky dough. Turn dough out onto a generously floured work surface; sprinkle dough with additional flour and let stand 2 to 3 minutes. Using floured hands and a bench scraper, knead dough by lifting the near edge and turning it over to the other side. Repeat this process until dough is smooth and begins to draw back, no more than 8 to 10 times.
- Place dough in bowl marked with the fill line and cover with plastic wrap. Let stand in a slightly warm (70 to 72 degrees) place until dough has risen to meet the fill line and is light and springy when touched, 3 to 4 hours.
- Loosen dough from edges of bowl with a rubber spatula or your fingers and turn out onto a lightly floured work surface. Using floured hands, push and pat dough into an 8-by-12-inch rectangle; fold dough into thirds like a letter. Return dough to bowl and cover with plastic wrap; let stand in a warm place until doubled in size, about 1 1/2 hours. Alternatively, cover dough and transfer bowl to refrigerator; let rise overnight, until doubled in size.
- Meanwhile, place butter in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment. Add remaining 1 tablespoon flour and beat until very smooth and well combined.
- Place dough on a lightly floured work surface and using floured hands or a floured rolling pin, push, pat, or roll dough into an 11-by-16-inch rectangle. Arrange dough so that one of the short ends is facing you. Spread butter mixture over the top two thirds of the dough, leaving a 1/4-inch border all around.
- Fold the bottom third of the dough up towards the center, like a letter. Fold the top third over the bottom third to cover, making three even layers of dough; square off corners. This is called turn 1. If butter becomes too soft, transfer dough to refrigerator and let chill for 1 hour.
- Place dough on a lightly floured work surface with one of the short ends facing you and the top fold turned to the right-hand side, like a book. Quickly roll dough in even strokes, working from middle towards the top, then the middle towards the bottom, into a 20-by-9-inch rectangle. Starting with the end closest to you, fold dough into thirds like a book; you should have three even layers. Wrap dough with plastic wrap. Transfer to refrigerator; refrigerate 1 1/2 hours.
- Unwrap dough and place on a lightly floured work surface; sprinkle dough with flour, brushing off excess with a dry pastry brush. Using a rolling pin, tap dough lightly several times to deflate. If butter seems too cold, cover with plastic wrap and let stand for 10 minutes. Uncover and roll dough into a 20-by-9-inch rectangle, making sure that bottom and tops of dough are lightly dusted with flour so dough doesnâ??t stick. If butter has congealed into hard flakes, let stand at room temperature for 10 minutes; butter must be able to extend to the entire size of the rectangle. Fold the top and bottom portions of dough towards the center leaving one inch between ends. Fold in half so that top half covers the bottom; you should have four even layers. Wrap dough with plastic wrap and transfer to refrigerator for 2 hours. Roll out dough as desired.
- Make the dough: Stir yeast, water, and 1 teaspoon sugar in a bowl. Let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. Butter a large bowl; set aside. Put bread flour, all-purpose flour, remaining 3 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons sugar, and the salt into the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the dough hook; mix on low speed until combined. Add yeast mixture, milk, and butter; mix until dough just comes together.
- Knead dough: Scrape dough out onto a lightly floured work surface. Using lightly floured hands, knead until smooth, about 3 minutes. Transfer to buttered bowl, turning to coat.
- Let dough rise: Cover dough with plastic wrap; transfer to the refrigerator. Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 2 hours (dough should not spring back when you press it with your finger).
- Make the butter package: About 45 minutes after the dough begins rising, put flour and butter into the clean bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment. Mix on medium speed until well combined, 3 to 4 minutes. Scrape butter mixture out onto a piece of parchment paper; shape into a rectangle. Top with parchment, and roll out to an 8-by-10-inch rectangle. Transfer to a baking sheet, and refrigerate 30 minutes.
- Roll out dough: Turn out dough onto a lightly floured work surface; shape into a rectangle. Roll out to a 10 1/2-by-16-inch rectangle, about 1/2 inch thick, with short side facing you.
- Place butter package on dough: The butter package should be cool but pliable; your finger should leave an indentation but the butter should still hold its shape. If too soft, continue to refrigerate; if too firm, let stand at room temperature briefly. Place horizontally on bottom half of dough; remove parchment. Fold top half of dough over butter package, and pinch edges of dough to seal.
- Roll in butter: Turn dough so that a short side is facing you and the seam is on the right. Roll out to a 10-by-20-inch rectangle, about 1/2 inch thick (keep the corners as square as possible).
- Fold dough into thirds: Remove any excess flour with a pastry brush. Starting at the far end, fold rectangle in thirds as you would a business letter (this completes the first of 3 "turns").
- Mark dough: Mark the dough with your knuckle (later, this will help you remember how many turns have been completed). Wrap dough in plastic, and refrigerate 1 hour.
- Repeat process: Remove from refrigerator, and press the dough; it should be pliable but have some resistance. If too soft, return to refrigerator; if too firm, let stand at room temperature, 5 minutes. Repeat the preceding three steps to complete two more turns (make 2 marks for the second turn and 3 marks for the third turn); always start with a short side facing you and the seam on the right, rolling lengthwise before crosswise. After the second turn, wrap dough in plastic, and refrigerate 1 hour. After the third and final turn, wrap dough in plastic, and refrigerate 8 hours (or overnight).
- Roll out and chill dough: Turn out dough onto a lightly floured work surface, and roll out to a 30-by-16-inch rectangle. If dough becomes unmanageable, cut in half crosswise, and roll out two 15-by-16-inch rectangles (refrigerate 1 piece as you work with the other). Chill in freezer 15 minutes. Remove dough, and remeasure: It should match original dimensions; if not, roll out again. If dough becomes too warm or elastic, chill in freezer, 15 minutes.
- Cut dough: Cut dough into two 30-by-8-inch rectangles (or four 15-by-8-inch rectangles). Stack rectangles, lining up edges (if you have four smaller rectangles, make two stacks).
- Trim dough and cut into triangles: Using a pastry or pizza wheel and cutting at a 20-degree angle, trim a small wedge from one short side to create an angled side. Cut dough into triangles, each with a 4 1/2-inch base. You should have about 20 total.
- Cut slits: Cut a 1-inch slit in the middle of the base of each triangle. Separate the stacks, transferring half the triangles to a parchment-lined baking sheet; cover, and refrigerate.
- Begin shaping croissants: Working with one triangle at a time and keeping remaining triangles covered with a clean kitchen towel, hold the two corners of the base, and stretch to lengthen it slightly. Grasp inner corners formed by the slit in the base, and lift and stretch them toward the outer sides of the triangle; press to seal.
- Roll croissants: Using your fingertips, roll the base of the triangle up and away from you, stretching the dough slightly outward as you roll to elongate the point (when finished, the point should be tucked under the croissant).
- Finish shaping croissants: Bend the two ends toward you to form a crescent shape (the ends should almost touch). Transfer to parchment-lined baking sheets, spacing croissants 2 inches apart. Repeat with remaining triangles. Cover loosely with plastic wrap, and let stand in a warm place until croissants have doubled in bulk and are very soft, 1 1/2 hours to 2 1/4 hours, depending on the temperature of room.
- Brush with egg: Preheat oven to 400 degrees, with racks in upper and lower thirds. Brush tops of croissants with egg. Bake, rotating sheets halfway through, until croissants are puffed and golden brown, 20 to 25 minutes. Let cool slightly on sheets on wire racks. Serve warm or at room temperature.
TRADITIONAL LAYERED FRENCH CROISSANTS
- Sprinkle 2 tablespoons of flour over the butter and mix it together with your hands in a mixing bowl or on a work surface. Transfer the butter to a length of foil or parchment paper and pat it into a 6 inch square. Fold up the foil to make a packet and refrigerate until chilled, about 2 hours.
- Combine 2 cups of the flour with the salt and sugar in a mixing bowl. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm water (100 degrees F/38 degrees C) and set aside until frothy, about 10 minutes. Meanwhile, warm the milk and the heavy cream to lukewarm. Add the yeast, milk, and cream to the flour mixture and stir well. The dough will have a batter-like consistency.
- Stir in the remaining 2 cups of flour 1/4 cup at a time to form a soft dough. It should no longer be sticky. Turn the dough onto a lightly floured work surface and knead until smooth, about 5 minutes. Place the dough in a mixing bowl and cover with plastic wrap. Refrigerate for 1 hour.
- To begin the rolling and folding process, both the butter and the dough should be at a cool room temperature. [See Cook's Note.] Place the dough on a floured surface and roll it into a 10-inch square. Set the block of butter diagonally on the square dough. Bring each point of dough to the center of the butter square; the edges of the dough should overlap. Pinch the edges together to seal.
- Starting from the center of the square and working outward, use a rolling pin to roll the dough out into a rectangle. The butter should be pliable enough to roll smoothly with the dough; if it's too soft and starts to ooze out the corners, wrap the dough in plastic and refrigerate before proceeding. Roll the dough into a long rectangle, approximately 8 by 18 inches. Fold the length of dough into thirds, like a business letter.
- If the dough is still cool, you can continue with another fold. Otherwise, wrap it in plastic and refrigerate for 45 minutes to 1 hour. Remove the dough from the refrigerator and let it warm up for about 10 minutes before you begin rolling it out again.
- Position the dough so that the open ends are at 12 and 6 o'clock. Roll the dough into a rectangle, working from the center of the dough and pressing outwards. Reposition the dough as necessary to fit your work space. You should have a long rectangle for the "book fold." Fold both ends of the dough into the middle; the ends don't have to be touching, but should be close. Fold the already-folded dough in half; it will look like a thick book. Wrap the dough well with plastic and refrigerate for 1 to 2 hours.
- Remove the dough from the refrigerator and let it rest at room temperature for about 20 minutes. Roll the dough into a rectangle again and fold it into thirds, like a business letter. Wrap it in plastic and refrigerate for 4-6 hours or overnight.
- To shape the croissants, roll the dough into a 10- by 38-inch rectangle on a lightly floured work surface. It should be about 1/4 inch thick. Use a pizza wheel or sharp paring knife to trim the edges of the dough. Divide the rectangle in half so that you have two 5-inch wide strips of dough. Use a clean yardstick to mark each strip into triangles that are 5 inches wide at their bases. Cut the triangles and place them onto parchment-lined baking sheets. Chill for 15 to 20 minutes, if necessary.
- Starting at the base of the triangle, roll the dough up into a log; the tip of the triangle should be under the body of the croissant to prevent it from unraveling. Bend in the corners to form the traditional crescent shape. Repeat with the remaining dough.
- Arrange the croissants on the parchment-lined baking sheets and allow to rise until doubled in size, about 1 to 2 hours.
- Preheat an oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Beat the egg with the tablespoon of water to make the egg wash. Brush the croissants with egg wash and bake in the preheated oven until deep brown, 22 to 25 minutes. Cool on a rack before serving.
Nutrition Facts : Calories 212.5 calories, Carbohydrate 18.8 g, Cholesterol 44.9 mg, Fat 14 g, Fiber 0.7 g, Protein 3.2 g, SaturatedFat 8.7 g, Sodium 139.6 mg, Sugar 2.1 g
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- Stir together flour, 1/4 cup sugar, and salt in a medium bowl; set aside. Stir together 2/3 cup warm water, yeast, and remaining 1 teaspoon sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook. Let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. Meanwhile, place 3 tablespoons butter in a microwavable bowl, loosely cover with a paper towel, and microwave on high until melted, about 30 seconds. (Keep remaining butter refrigerated.) Add melted butter and milk to yeast mixture. With mixer running on low speed, gradually add flour mixture to yeast mixture, beating until dry ingredients are incorporated, about 6 minutes. Increase speed to medium-low, and beat until dough is smooth, elastic, and tacky, about 8 minutes. Shape dough into a ball; flatten slightly. Place dough on a lightly floured large plate; wrap tightly in plastic wrap. Refrigerate at least 2 hours or up to 8 hours or overnight for more flavor.
- Place remaining 1 1/2 cups cold butter between 2 sheets of parchment paper; let stand at room temperature 10 minutes. Using a rolling pin, pound butter to flatten and soften slightly. Removing and replacing parchment as needed, use a bench scraper and a rolling pin to shape butter into a 7 1/2-inch square block of even thickness. Refrigerate between sheets of parchment paper 15 minutes.
- Unwrap chilled dough, and transfer to a lightly floured surface. Lightly flour top of dough. Roll into a 12-inch square; brush off excess flour. Remove and discard top sheet of parchment paper from butter block. Using bottom sheet of parchment paper as handles and turning butter block 45 degrees, flip butter onto middle of dough square. (Butter will be in a diamond shape, leaving corners of dough square exposed.) Remove and discard parchment paper. Using a rolling pin and starting at edge of butter block, roll each dough corner away from the center until it is 8 inches long (about 1/16 inch thick), flouring as needed. Brush off excess flour. Fold one elongated dough corner up and over butter block, stretching gently into a square to fully cover butter. Repeat with remaining dough corners, creating 4 layers of thinly stretched dough covering butter block.
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